Bariatric Surgery: conditions, types, the difference between them

Is bariatric surgery an option for you Learn about the types of weight loss operations, their conditions, the difference
between them.

What is meant by bariatric surgery?

Bariatric surgery is a variety of surgical procedures aimed at reducing weight for people who are excessively obese and
face health and psychological problems due to being overweight, especially if they cannot lose their excess weight by
other methods.

Conditions for undergoing bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery is not an option for everyone, it has certain conditions that must apply to you first to be considered
eligible for this procedure, the most important of which are:

1. That you have tried other ways to lose weight and failed.

2. To be obese or obese with other health problems caused by obesity.

3. Be physically and psychologically ready to undergo surgery.

4. Be prepared to follow postoperative instructions, including dietary and exercise guidelines, and follow-up
examinations after the operation.

What are the benefits of bariatric surgery?

The bariatric surgery process has many benefits, such as:

  • Achieve noticeable and rapid weight loss:

Generally, the results of most bariatric surgeries appear within the first one to two years of surgery, and the
majority of people notice a loss of 50-60% of their weight, and this percentage may increase or decrease
depending on the type of surgery you had and adherence to the instructions after the operation.

  • Reduce the risk of death due to obesity diseases:

Bariatric surgery reduces the risk of death due to diseases caused by obesity such as diabetes, stress, heart
disease, cancer, and others by 30-50%.

  • Control of chronic diseases:

Bariatric surgery contributes to improving the condition of people with chronic diseases caused by obesity, as it
stabilizes readings and stops the need to use medications by 92% for people with diabetes, 75% for people with
hypertension, 96% for people with obstructive sleep apnea, and also high rates for other obesity diseases.

  • Prevention of various obesity diseases.
  • Improve the quality of life and physical fitness.

What are the types of bariatric surgery?

There are several types of weight loss operations, varying in their degree of complexity. The more complicated the
surgical procedure adopted to lose weight, the greater and faster the expected weight loss after the operation, but this
may entail higher potential effects and risks of course.

Therefore, the choice between the types of bariatric surgery is most suitable for you in cooperation with your doctor,
after discussing the percentage of excess weight, and the possible side effects of each operation, and below we explain
the common types of bariatric surgery and the most important differences between them:

Gastric bypass surgery:

In this surgery, the surgeon creates a small pouch at the top of the stomach, and then connects it directly to the small
intestine, bypassing most of the stomach and about 1.5 meters from the small intestine, this leads to a reduction in the
size of the stomach and intestines involved in the process of digestion and absorption of food, thereby losing weight.

  • Weight loss: significant and rapid weight loss, about 50-65 % during the first 1-2 years of the operation.
  • Differences: more complicated surgically compared to sleeve gastrectomy, and therefore a higher weight
    loss percentage.
Sleeve gastrectomy:

Gastric sleeve or gastric cutting, both terms express the same procedure, in the gastric sleeve operation, 80% of the
stomach is cut and removed to reduce its size, so it becomes in the form of a small banana or a small tube, which
reduces the amount of food eaten, and contributes to weight loss.

  • Weight loss: significant and rapid weight loss, about 33 - 58 % during the first 1-2 years of the operation.
  • Differences: the procedure is less complicated than gastric bypass surgery because it does not involve an
    adjustment to the intestine either, but the percentage of expected weight loss after it remains large and fast
    as well.
Gastric banding:

Gastric banding is a medical procedure in which the doctor uses a silicone collar to bind the upper part of the stomach,
which reduces the amount of food that reaches the stomach, and this procedure has been used less currently because
there are other more effective alternatives.

  • Weight loss: gradual weight loss, about 45-72 % over 3-6 years.
  • Differences: it is a simpler surgical procedure, it can be removed at any time and the size of your stomach
    returns to the same as it was unlike the rest of the previous types, but the success rate may be lower compared
    to some other procedures.
Pancreatic, biliary and duodenal bypass surgery:

This operation is carried out in two steps: sleeve gastrectomy to remove 80% of it and then connect the remaining parts
of the stomach with the last part of the small intestine bypassing most of the small intestine, which reduces the size of
the stomach and intestines involved in the digestion and absorption of food significantly.

The percentage of weight lost after undergoing bariatric surgery may increase or decrease depending on your
compliance with the dietary instructions after the operation.

Frequently asked questions:

How is bariatric surgery performed?

Most bariatric surgery is performed laparoscopically without the need for large incisions in the abdomen. This is done by
making small incisions, usually about 5-6 incisions, the size of one incision does not exceed 1-1.5 cm. These incisions are
used to insert special surgical instruments to successfully perform the operation.

What is the difference between gastric balloon and this bariatric surgery?

Gastric balloon is a non-surgical method of treating obesity, and it is done by inserting a balloon inside the stomach
through gastroscopy through the mouth without any incisions in the body, and then filling this balloon with saline
solution, and this procedure is one of the temporary measures to lose weight, because the balloon leaves a period of
only 6 months in the stomach, and then it is removed to avoid any health risks.
Gastric balloon is a simpler procedure than surgery, and the percentage of weight loss after it is lower compared to
surgical methods, where patients usually lose 7-15% of weight within 6 months.

Is there a risk of bariatric surgery?

Bariatric surgery, like any surgical procedure, carries some risks, however, the risks of obesity are much greater than
the risks of bariatric surgeries for most patients
, and if the instructions after surgery are followed and the lost weight is
maintained, most people will see a significant improvement in their health without the occurrence of health problems
worthy of concern, however, we should always take into account the presence of potential risks.

In general, the effects and risks can vary depending on the type of surgery and its complexity, as well as depending on
the person's general health condition, the extent to which he follows the postoperative instructions, and the skill of the
medical team, here are the most important effects and potential risks of bariatric surgery:

  • Lack of vitamins and minerals in the body.
  • Gallstones.
  • Hernia.
  • Low blood sugar.
  • Ulcers.
  • Reflux of gastric acid.
  • Bleeding.
  • Infection.
  • Blood clots.
  • Breathing problems.
  • Intestinal obstruction.
  • Dumping syndrome or rapid emptying (Dumping syndrome) that causes diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and a
    feeling of lightheadedness.
What instructions will I have to follow after bariatric surgery?

Although bariatric surgery achieves significant weight loss, it is not a definitive cure for obesity on its own, as a person
will need to make a set of permanent lifestyle changes to avoid gaining weight again.

An important instruction after bariatric surgery is the following:

  • Make changes to your diet: the doctor will ask you to eat only soft foods and liquids for several weeks after
    surgery, then you will gradually switch to a balanced diet that you must adhere to for life, and the doctor may
    recommend taking vitamin and mineral supplements as well.
  • Regular exercise: once you have fully recovered from bariatric surgery the doctor will ask you to exercise
    regularly for life.
  • Adhere to periodic reviews: to make sure that all your things are fine, and to give you any new tips and
    instructions that enhance your recovery from surgery.

The Department of bariatric surgery at Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital integrated medical care for patients suffering from
severe obesity problems at the hands of the most skilled specialists, and is carried out by evaluating the specialist for the
patient's situation and determining the most appropriate treatment method for him.

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Bariatric Surgery
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